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Werewolves






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This article has several sections :

1. Werewolf defined

2. Written Timeline for Werewolves

3. Becoming a Werewolf

4. Werewolf Story

5. Werewolf Links

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A werewolf, also known as a lycanthrope (from the Greek λυκάνθρωπος: λύκος, lukos, "wolf", and άνθρωπος, anthrōpos, man), is a mythological or folkloric human with the ability to shapeshift into a wolf or an anthropomorphic wolf-like creature, either purposely, by being bitten by another werewolf, or after being placed under a curse. This transformation is often associated with the appearance of the full moon, as popularly noted by the medieval chronicler Gervase of Tilbury, and perhaps in earlier times among the ancient Greeks through the writings of Petronius.


Werewolves are often attributed superhuman strength and senses, far beyond those of both wolves and men. The werewolf is generally held as a European character, although its lore spread through the world in later times. Shape-shifters, similar to werewolves, are common in tales from all over the world, most notably amongst the Native Americans, though most of them involve animal forms other than wolves.


Werewolves are a frequent subject of modern fictional books, although fictional werewolves have been attributed traits distinct from those of original folklore, most notably vulnerability to silver bullets. Werewolves continue to endure in modern culture and fiction, with books, films and television shows cementing the werewolf's stance as a dominant figure in horror.



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For other uses, see Werewolf (disambiguation). "Wolf man", "wolf-man" and "wolfman" redirect here; for other uses of those terms, see Wolf man (disambiguation). For other human to animal shapeshifters, see Therianthropy. See also: Lycanthropy (disambiguation)




Source - Wikipedia


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"WRITTEN" Timeline for werewolves





1550 BC – King Lycaon of Arcadia serves human flesh to the god Zeus and is transformed into a wolf as punishment. The term “Lycanthrope” is derived from this story.




440 BC – In “Histories of Herodotus“, the traveller Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484 BC – 425 BC) writes of the Neuri people, who transform into wolves once a year.




400 BC – A victorious Olympic boxer by the name of Damarchus, an Arcadian of Parrhasia, is said to have transformed into that of a wolf at the sacrifice of Lycaean (Wolf) Zeus, and nine years after he became a man again.




37 BC – Roman poet Virgil (70 BC – 19 BC), in the “Eclogues”, tells of the change of Moeris to the form of a wolf by the use of herbs.




2 BC – 8 AD – Roman poet Ovid (43 BC – 17 AD) writes “Metamorphoses” including a verse about Lycaon, who is transformed into a wolf by the god Zeus.




60 – “Satyricon“, by Roman writer Petronius (27-66 AD), contains a detailed account of a soldier who is a werewolf.




432 – St. Patrick arrives in Ireland




970 – A man named Baianus is believed to be able to turn himself into a wolf through the arts of necromancy.




1020 – First use of the word “werewulf” recorded in English




1101 – Death of Vseslav Bryachislavich, the most famous ruler of Polotsk, believed by many to be a werewolf.




1182 – Welsh historian Giraldus Cambrensis (1146 – 1223) encounters Irish werewolves who transform during the Yuletide feast. The werewolves were reportedly natives of Ossory, whose people had been cursed by St. Natalis for their wickedness.




1194-1197 – Guillaume de Palerne composed.




1198 – Marie de France composes Bisclavret.




1250 – Lai de Melion composed.




1502? 1521? – The three werewolves of Poligny, Pierre Bourgot, Michel Verdung (or Udon), and Philibert Mentot are burnt at the stake being werewolves.




1541 – In Pavia, Italy, a farmer in the form of a wolf is said to have torn many men in the open country to pieces. After being captured, he assures his captors that the only difference between himself and a natural wolf, was that in a true wolf the hair grew outward, whilst in him it struck inward. In order to put this assertion to the proof, the magistrates cut off his arms and legs, and he dies from wounds.




1555 – Olaus Magnus records strange behavior of Baltic werewolves.




1573 – Gilles Garnier, the Werewolf of Dole, is burnt at the stake.

1578 – Jacques Rollet goes on trial in Paris. He was found guilty of being a werewolf.




1588 – The Werewolf of Auvergne is burned at the stake.




1589 – Peter Stubb is executed in Germany after terrorizing the countryside near Cologne in the form of a wolf.




1590 – Michel Jaques confesses to becoming a wolf seven or eight times after anointing himself with an unguent given to him by the devil.




1598 – The “Werewolf of Châlons“, known also as the “Demon Tailor”, was arraigned in France on December 14, on murder charges.




1598 – The same year, the Gandillon family, a sister, brother and two of the man’s children were tried together in France.




1598 – Jacques Roulet, a begger, is arrested in Caude in the vicinity of Angers, France for being a werewolf.




1602 – Michée Bauloz, along with Jeanne de la Pierre and Suzanne Prevost are condemned.




1603 – Teenage Jean Grenier tried as werewolf and is sentenced to life imprisonment.




1623 – There are a series of court trials in which eighteen men and thirteen women are tried for lycanthropy.




1692 – An 80-year-old man named Thiess is tried in Jurgenburg, Livonia. He confesses to being a werewolf. Judges sentence Thiess to ten lashes for acts of idolatry and superstitious beliefs.




1764 – 1767 – The Beast of Gévaudan terrorizes the former province of Gévaudan, in the Margeride Mountains in south-central France. There were over 100 victims.




1812 – Grimm Brothers publish their version of “Little Red Riding Hood.”




1824 – Antoine Leger tried for werewolf crimes and sentenced to lunatic asylum.




1852 – Traveling vendor Manuel Blanco Romasanta confesses to the murders of thirteen people. Romasanta was tried in Allariz and eluded capital punishment by professing he was a werewolf.




1865 – “The Book of Were-Wolves” is written by the Reverend Sabine Baring-Gould. Still considered one of the leading books on werewolf history.




1920 – Right-wing terror group “Operation Werewolf” established in Germany.




1933 – British Occult writer and clergyman Montague Summers publishes “The Werewolf.” He is still known today for his ridiculous writings on witches, vampires, and werewolves.




1941 – The film “The Wolf Man” starring Lon Chaney Jr. is released.




1948 – Robert Eisler delivers his lecture “Man into Wolf: An Anthropological Interpretation of Sadism, Masochism, and Lycanthropy” to the Psychiatric Section of the Royal Society of Medicine in London, England.




1981 – The film “An American Werewolf in London” is released and includes first four-footed werewolf.




1989 – The first sighting of the beast of Bray Road.

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Becoming a werewolf

Source - Wikipedia


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Various methods for becoming a werewolf have been reported, one of the simplest being the removal of clothing and putting on a belt made of wolfskin, probably as a substitute for the assumption of an entire animal skin (which also is frequently described).[13] In other cases, the body is rubbed with a magic salve.[13] To drink rainwater out of the footprint of the animal in question or to drink from certain enchanted streams were also considered effectual modes of accomplishing metamorphosis.[14] The 16th century Swedish writer Olaus Magnus says that the Livonian werewolves were initiated by draining a cup of specially prepared beer and repeating a set formula. Ralston in his Songs of the Russian People gives the form of incantation still familiar in Russia.


In Italy, France and Germany, it was said that a man or woman could turn into a werewolf if he or she, on a certain Wednesday or Friday, slept outside on a summer night with the full moon shining directly on his face.[12]


In other cases, the transformation was supposedly accomplished by Satanic allegiance for the most loathsome ends, often for the sake of sating a craving for human flesh. "The werewolves", writes Richard Verstegan (Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, 1628),



are certayne sorcerers, who having annoynted their bodies with an ointment which they make by the instinct of the devil, and putting on a certayne inchaunted girdle, does not only unto the view of others seem as wolves, but to their own thinking have both the shape and nature of wolves, so long as they wear the said girdle. And they do dispose themselves as very wolves, in worrying and killing, and most of humane creatures.



Such were the views about lycanthropy current throughout the continent of Europe when Verstegan wrote.


The phenomenon of repercussion, the power of animal metamorphosis, or of sending out a familiar, real or spiritual, as a messenger, and the supernormal powers conferred by association with such a familiar, are also attributed to the magician, male and female, all the world over; and witch superstitions are closely parallel to, if not identical with, lycanthropic beliefs, the occasional involuntary character of lycanthropy being almost the sole distinguishing feature. In another direction the phenomenon of repercussion is asserted to manifest itself in connection with the bush-soul of the West African and the nagual of Central America; but though there is no line of demarcation to be drawn on logical grounds, the assumed power of the magician and the intimate association of the bush-soul or the nagual with a human being are not termed lycanthropy. Nevertheless it will be well to touch on both these beliefs here.


The curse of lycanthropy was also considered by some scholars as being a divine punishment. Werewolf literature shows many examples of God or saints allegedly cursing those who invoked their wrath with werewolfism. Those who were excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church were also said to become werewolves.[12]

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The power of transforming others into wild beasts was attributed not only to malignant sorcerers, but to Christian saints as well. Omnes angeli, boni et Mali, ex virtute naturali habent potestatem transmutandi corpora nostra ("All angels, good and bad have the power of transmutating our bodies") was the dictum of St. Thomas Aquinas. St. Patrick was said to have transformed the Welsh king Vereticus into a wolf; Natalis supposedly cursed an illustrious Irish family whose members were each doomed to be a wolf for seven years. In other tales the divine agency is even more direct, while in Russia, again, men supposedly became werewolves when incurring the wrath of the Devil.


A notable exception to the association of Lycanthropy and the Devil, comes from a rare and lesser known account of an 80-year-old man named Thiess. In 1692, in Jurgenburg, Livonia, Thiess testified under oath that he and other werewolves were the Hounds of God.[15] He claimed they were warriors who went down into hell to do battle with witches and demons. Their efforts ensured that the Devil and his minions did not carry off the grain from local failed crops down to hell. Thiess was steadfast in his assertions, claiming that werewolves in Germany and Russia also did battle with the devil's minions in their own versions of hell, and insisted that when werewolves died, their souls were welcomed into heaven as reward for their service. Thiess was ultimately sentenced to ten lashes for Idolatry and superstitious belief.



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A distinction is often made between voluntary and involuntary werewolves. The former are generally thought to have made a pact, usually with the Devil, and morph into werewolves at night to indulge in nefarious acts. Involuntary werewolves, on the other hand, are werewolves by an accident of birth or health. In some cultures, individuals born during a new moon or suffering from epilepsy were considered likely to be werewolves.


Becoming a werewolf simply by being bitten by another werewolf as a form of contagion is common in modern horror fiction, but this kind of transmission is rare in legend, unlike the case in vampirism.[12]


Even if the denotation of lycanthropy is limited to the wolf-metamorphosis of living human beings, the beliefs classed together under this head are far from uniform, and the term is somewhat capriciously applied. The transformation may be temporary or permanent; the were-animal may be the man himself metamorphosed; may be his double whose activity leaves the real man to all appearance unchanged; may be his soul, which goes forth seeking whom it may devour, leaving its body in a state of trance; or it may be no more than the messenger of the human being, a real animal or a familiar spirit, whose intimate connection with its owner is shown by the fact that any injury to it is believed, by a phenomenon known as repercussion, to cause a corresponding injury to the human being



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In 1588, in a village in the Auvergne region, about two leagues from Apchon, there was a case of witchcraft which created a huge sensation.

A gentleman of that place being at his window, there passed a friend of his who had been out hunting, and who was then returning to his own house. The gentleman asked his friend what sport he had had; upon which the latter informed him that he had been attacked in the plain by a large and savage wolf, which he had shot at without wounding, and that he had then drawn out his hunting-knife and cut off the animal's fore-paw as it sprang upon his neck to devour him. The huntsman upon this put his hand into his bag to pull out the paw, but was shocked to find that it was a woman's hand, with a wedding ring on the finger. The gentleman immediately recognised his wife's ring, "which," says the indictment against her, "made him begin to suspect some evil of her." He immediately went in search of her, and found her sitting by the fire in the kitchen, with her arm hidden underneath her apron. He tore off her apron with great vehemence, and found that she had no hand, and that the stump was even then bleeding. She was given into custody, and burnt at Riom, in presence of some thousands of spectators (Mackay 503). This link has more good stories
http://www.nnd.cz/werewolves/prameny/were_stories.htm


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Werewolf Links


http://www.werewolffacts.zoomshare.com/

http://alam25.tripod.com/

http://thepackofar.50megs.com/werewolf.html

http://hubpages.com/hub/Werewolf-Facts


:D



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