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Your doctor will feel for tenderness in your nose and face and look inside your nose.
Other methods for diagnosing chronic sinusitis include:
Nasal endoscopy. A thin, flexible tube (endoscope) with a fiber-optic light inserted through your nose allows your doctor to see the inside of your sinuses. This also is known as rhinoscopy.
Imaging studies. Images taken using a CT scan or MRI can show details of your sinuses and nasal area. These might pinpoint a deep inflammation or physical obstruction that's difficult to detect using an endoscope.
Nasal and sinus cultures. Cultures are generally unnecessary for diagnosing chronic sinusitis. However, when the condition fails to respond to treatment or is worsening, tissue cultures might help determine the cause, such as bacteria or fungi.
An allergy test. If your doctor suspects that the condition might be triggered by allergies, he or she might recommend an allergy skin test. A skin test is safe and quick and can help pinpoint the allergen that's responsible for your nasal flare-ups.
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The goal of treating chronic sinusitis is to:
Reduce sinus inflammation
Keep your nasal passages draining
Eliminate the underlying cause
Reduce the number of sinusitis flare-ups
Treatments to relieve symptoms
These treatments include:
Saline nasal irrigation, with nasal sprays or solutions, reduces drainage and rinses away irritants and allergies.
Nasal corticosteroids. These nasal sprays help prevent and treat inflammation. Examples include fluticasone (Flonase, Veramyst), triamcinolone (Nasacort 24), budesonide (Rhinocort), mometasone (Nasonex) and beclomethasone (Beconase AQ, Qnasl, others).
If the sprays aren't effective enough, your doctor might recommend rinsing with a solution of saline mixed with drops of budesonide (Pulmicort Respules) or using a nasal mist of the solution.
Oral or injected corticosteroids. These medications are used to relieve inflammation from severe sinusitis, especially if you also have nasal polyps. Oral corticosteroids can cause serious side effects when used long term, so they're used only to treat severe symptoms.
Aspirin desensitization treatment, if you have reactions to aspirin that cause sinusitis. Under medical supervision, you're gradually given larger doses of aspirin to increase your tolerance.
Antibiotics are sometimes necessary for sinusitis if you have a bacterial infection. If your doctor can't rule out an underlying infection, he or she might recommend an antibiotic, sometimes with other medications.
If allergies are contributing to your sinusitis, allergy shots (immunotherapy) that help reduce the body's reaction to specific allergens might improve the condition.
Endoscopic sinus surgery
Endoscopic sinus surgery
In cases resistant to treatment or medication, endoscopic sinus surgery might be an option. For this procedure, the doctor uses a thin, flexible tube with an attached light (endoscope) to explore your sinus passages.
Depending on the source of obstruction, the doctor might use various instruments to remove tissue or shave away a polyp that's causing nasal blockage. Enlarging a narrow sinus opening also may be an option to promote drainage.
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Lifestyle and home remedies
These self-help steps can help relieve sinusitis symptoms:
Rest. This will help your body fight inflammation and speed recovery.
Drink fluids, such as water or juice. This will help dilute mucous secretions and promote drainage. Avoid beverages that contain caffeine or alcohol, which can be dehydrating. Drinking alcohol also can worsen the swelling of the lining of the sinuses and nose.
Moisturize your sinus cavities. Drape a towel over your head as you breathe in the vapor from a bowl of medium-hot water. Keep the vapor directed toward your face. Or take a hot shower, breathing in the warm, moist air to help ease pain and help mucus drain.
Apply warm compresses to your face. Place warm, damp towels around your nose, cheeks and eyes to ease facial pain.
Rinse out your nasal passages. Use a specially designed squeeze bottle (Sinus Rinse, others), saline canister or neti pot to rinse your nasal passages. This home remedy, called nasal lavage, can help clear your sinuses.
If you make your own rinse, use water that's contaminant-free — distilled, sterile, previously boiled and cooled, or filtered using a filter with an absolute pore size of 1 micron or smaller — to make up the irrigation solution. Also be sure to rinse the irrigation device after each use with contaminant-free water, and let air-dry.
Sleep with your head elevated. This will help your sinuses drain, reducing congestion.
Preparing for your appointment
When you see your doctor, expect a thorough examination of your sinuses. Here's information to help you get ready for your appointment.
What you can do
Make a list of:
Your symptoms, including any that seem unrelated to the reason for your appointment
Key personal information, including whether you have allergies or asthma and family medical history
All medications, vitamins or other supplements you take, including the doses
Questions to ask your doctor
Take a family member or friend along, if possible, to help you remember the information you're given.
For chronic sinusitis, questions to ask your doctor include:
What's likely causing my symptoms?
What are other possible causes for my symptoms?
What tests do I need?
Is my condition likely temporary or chronic?
What's the best course of action?
What are the alternatives to the primary approach you're suggesting?
I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?
Are there restrictions I need to follow?
Should I see a specialist?
Are there brochures or other printed material I can have? What websites do you recommend?
Don't hesitate to ask other questions.
What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor is likely to ask you questions, such as:
When did your symptoms begin?
Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
How severe are your symptoms?
What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?
What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?
HERE IS THE COMPLETE ARTICLE FROM THE HERALD SUN RE THE TERRORISM ATTACK I WAS TALKING ABOUT IN MY OTHER ARTICLE.
Bourke St horror: One murdered, police shoot armed attacker dead in terror attack
Stephen Drill, Aneeka Simonis, Ryan Tennison, Josh Fagan, David Hurley and Genevieve Alison, Herald Sun
3 minutes ago
A MAN who was identified as a security risk and known to ASIO has been shot dead in a terror attack in Bourke St after a series of explosions rocked the Melbourne CBD this afternoon.
He stabbed a person to death before being shot while attacking police. He has since died.
The Herald Sun can reveal the man’s links to known convicted terror plotters are being investigated.
The man was a Somali-born Australian and his passport had been cancelled for several years.
He was one of 300 “persons of interest” in Victoria who have been identified as posing a potential security risk. The man’s wife was last night missing and is believed to have been radicalised.
MORE LAW AND ORDER
BOURKE ST TERROR ATTACK: WHAT WE KNOW SO FAR
Police are not looking for any other offenders.
One of the stabbing victims is in a critical condition, while a third suffered minor injuries.
“He was a person of interest well-known to Victoria Police, the AFP and ASIO,” a source said.
A source also said he had a string of convictions for drug and traffic offences. He did not have convictions for crimes of violence.
Police chased the man who was carrying a weapon about 4.30pm following a crash that saw a car burst into flames outside Target near the corner of Bourke and Swanston streets.
A man appears to attack police in Bourke St. Image: Twitter user rankki_poi
Police confronting the man. Image: Twitter user rankki_poi
A source close to police said there were a number of gas cylinders in the exploded car.
One witness said two officers tried to apprehend the man, he produced a knife and tried to “stab them.”
The witness said: “The cops were backing off but he kept coming at them”.
No police were injured in the attack.
Police say there are no known links to terrorism, but they are keeping an open mind.
The cylinders were rendered safe by the bomb squad several hours after the attack.
Superintendent David Clayton said the man was “brandishing a knife and threatening police” as they responded to a car fire about 4.30pm.
“Passer-bys were calling out that members of the public had been stabbed,” he said.
“Police shot the male in the chest and he is now in a critical condition, under guard at hospital.
“Three people have been stabbed. unfortunately, one is deceased at the scene. Two other victims are currently at hospital.”
The suspect was shot in the chest.
One man died in the incident. Photo: Robert Cianflone/Getty Images
View image on Twitter
View image on Twitter
Bourke Street in Melbourne CBD remains closed following an incident.
Closures have been set up with no access from Swanston St to Exhibition St.
Russell St remains open to traffic.
Trams not operating on Swanston or Bourke St around closure.
Updates at @VicTraffic
7:06 PM - Nov 9, 2018
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Two bystanders stepped in to surround the armed man, including one who used a shopping trolley as a weapon.
The witness then picked up a rubber weight on the ground to help the officers under siege.
He said terrified bystanders were yelling “shoot him, shoot him”.
A man with a trolley comes to the aid of police during the Bourke St incident.
DID YOU SEE WHAT HAPPENED? EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org
WITNESSES HEARD BANGS, SAW MAN COVERED IN BLOOD
Drumplings venue manager Ana Kostakos witnessed the horrific scene unfold in front of the Bourke St eatery and saw the ute rolling down the street, exploding multiple times “left, right and centre” as terrified staffers and customers hid inside.
She told the Herald Sun she saw the man lunge at the police officers before they shot him in the chest.
“Police tried to hard to beat him down with a baton but he wasn’t giving in, he wasn’t even running away — he was going towards them,” she said.
“There was a guy with the shopping trolley trying to help but everybody was running in all directions.
“People were trying to help victims because he was just knifing at random. The security (guard) from building next door was also stabbed, but I saw he was sitting up so we know he survived.”
The eatery was forced to go into lockdown with five staffers and eight customers shut inside for more than two hours until police said they were free to go around 6.30pm.
One worker was left shaken after witnessing the incident, Ms Kostakos said.
“One of my staff is traumatised, he’s just devastated and it’s taken a while to keep him calm,” she said.
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A knife-wielding confronts police in Melbourne CBD
Witness Christian, who was in a nearby bookstore, said he heard a loud noise and saw police chasing a man.
“I heard a loud bang, I ran outside and saw everyone was running the other way,” he said.
“I saw a man covered in blood and also saw officers chasing someone.”
Witness Piper said she and her partner “were about 20m from the car explosion, we saw a security guard with blood all over him and a man on the floor (he looked dead), we felt the heat and were very shocked we did not know how to react. We left straight away not knowing what could happen next. I will most likely not return to city in a while …”
Businesses are shut near the incident, with police telling people to stay inside.
#bourkest source from wechat (I am not the author)
5:26 PM - Nov 9, 2018
180 people are talking about this
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Neapoli Cafe in Russell Place has been closed, with staff remaining there and waiting for further instructions from police.
Sam, from the cafe, said: “There was just a lot of bangs. There’s only staff here, police told us to stay.”
Another person nearby said there was four loud explosions heard, which may have been linked to a ute nearby that was in flames.
DID YOU SEE WHAT HAPPENED? EMAIL: email@example.com
Some fled the area fearing there may be further explosions.
A bystander in Bourke St said people ran as the car burst into flames.
“There was a guy stabbed and there was a car explosion in Bourke Street,” he said.
“It was near JB Hi Fi, near the corner of Russell Place.”
The bystander said that other people had run to safety.
“They ran into a cafe and locked themselves in a kitchen,” he said.
Another witness, who did not want his name published, said he saw a car on fire outside the JB Hi-Fi and a man appearing to swing a large knife.
The witness said police had their guns drawn but could not tell if the man was shot or if it was a “popping sound” from the car fire.
“I watched him fall the police had weapons drawn,” he said.
“He was down.”
The witness told the Herald Sun two or three policemen were standing over the man who was then dragged into a side alley.
He said there was a person covered in blood near the car receiving first aid.
The witness said the injured person was either being given CPR or had a possible throat wound.
Michael, of the Treasure Star Karaoke Bar on Bourke St, said he heard loud noises shortly before 5pm.
“We just heard the explosion and we closed the shop,” he said.
“There was a gun sound, there was one or two gunshots.”
POLICE SEND EMERGENCY WARNINGS
Police used the emergency text warning service sending out a message saying: “Victoria Police is responding to an incident at the corner of Bourke and Swanston streets. Avoid the area.”
The terror public service system was also activated.
The sirens sounded before 6pm, and urged anyone with information about the incident to contact police.
Myer has cancelled the opening of its Christmas windows.
Bourke Street in the Melbourne CBD remains closed for investigations, following an incident near Swanston Street.
Closures have been set up around the incident, with no access from Swanston Street to Exhibition Street. Russell Street remains open to traffic.
The road will be reopened when investigations are complete and it’s safe to do so.
Tram services aren’t operating on Swanston Street or Bourke Street around the closure.
Police say if the CBD is part of your journey tonight, plan ahead and avoid the centre of the city.
Police cordon off Bourke St. Picture: Aneeka Simonis
Onlookers near the corner of Swanston and Bourke streets. Picture: Josh Fagan
A police statement said: “Police are currently at an incident on Bourke Street in the CBD. “Police initially responded to a report of a car on fire near the corner of Swanston Street about 4.20pm. A man was arrested at the scene and has been taken to hospital under police guard in a critical condition. Police are not looking for anyone further at this early stage. A small number of people are being treated for stab wounds.
“The exact circumstances are yet to be determined at this stage.
“The area has been cordoned off and the public are urged to avoid the area.
“Anyone with information or who witnessed the incident is asked to go to Melbourne West Police Station to make a statement.
“We will provide further information when it comes to hand.”
Route 86/96 trams in both directions are diverting via La Trobe St between Stop 11 Melbourne Museum and Spencer St due to a @VictoriaPolice incident in Bourke St. (1/2)
4:34 PM - Nov 9, 2018
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See Yarra Trams's other Tweets
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Swanston and Bourke St trams are delayed due to a police incident. Please avoid the area if possible.
TODAYI LEARNED THAT IN AUSTRALIA THAT THERE WAS A LONE WOLF TERRORIST ATTACK IN MELBOURNE VICTORIA. ONE POOR INNOCENT GUY WAS STABBED TO DEATH BY THIS HORRID TERRORIST BEFORE LAW ENFORCEMENT SHOT HIM DEAD. PLEASE DO ONT LET A DAY GO BY THAT YOU DO NOT REMEMBER TO REMIND THOSE YOU LOVE THAT YOU LOVE THEM, JUST IN CASE THAT IS THE LAST TIME YOU SEE THEM ALIVE. LIFE IS SO SHORT, NONE OF US KNOWWHEN OUT TIME IS UP AND WE WILL DIE AD RETURN TO SPIRIT. SO PLEASE NEVER SAY GOOD BYE ANGRY OR GO OT BED ANGRY WITH THOSE YOU LOVE.
FOR THOSE INTERESTED THIS IS WHERE I GOT THE INFORMATION. ITS FROM THE HERALD SUN ,ONE OF THE MANY DAILY NEWSPAPERS I SUBSCRIBE TO.
WELL SAID , LIFE IS FAR TO SHORT AND NO ONE KNOWS WHEN THEIR TIME IS UP, I AAGREE NEVER GO TO SLEEP OR SAY GOOD BYE ANGRY..
SOME OF MY FAMILY TRADITIONS
09:36 Nov 09 2018 Times Read: 47
ONE OF OUR FAMILY RITUALS IS WE LIGHT CANDELS FOR EACH MEMBER OF OUR FAMILY AND AS EACH ONE OF US LEAVE FOR THE DAY OUR CANDLE IS BLOWN OUT. WHEN WE RETURN HOME,JUST BEFORE SUPPER THE ELDEST MEMBER OF OUR FAMILY RE LIGHTS EVERYONE'S CANDLES AND WE GIVE THANKS T GODDESS THAT EACH MEMBER HAS RETURNED SAFELY HOME FROM THEIR DAYS WORK SCHOOL ETC.
AT BEDTIME WE LIGHT A CANDLE FOR EACH KID AND DO A SPECIAL SWEET DREAMS AND A GOOD NIGHT RITUAL THEN WE BLOW IT OUT AND TUCK THEM INTO BED.
FOR THANKSGIVING OTHER THEN THE USUAL HUGE FEAST, WE EACH WRITE EACH FAMILY MEMBER, INCLUDING OUR ANIMALS A PERSONAL LETTER , SAYING WHY WE LOVE THEM, AND WHY WE ARE THANKFUL, THAT THEY ARE IN OUR LIVES. WE ALSO GIVE A SMALL GIFT, BUT THE GIFT RULE IS ,THE GIFT MUST BE HOME MADE NOT BOUGHT FROM A STORE. WE ALSO DO A THANKSGIVING RITUAL AT OUR FAMILY ALTER TO GIVE THANKS FOR THE MANY BLESSINGS WE ALL HAVE LIKE FAMILY FOOD TO EAT A HOME TO LIVE IN ETC. WE ALSO HELP OUT AT A HOMELESS KITCHEN AND GIVE THEM A GOOD THANSGIVING MEAL. WE ALSO DELIVER A TREAT HAMPER TO THE POLICE THE FIRE DEPT AND PARAMEDICS AS AS A SMALL THANK YOU FOR KEEPING US SAFE. WE ALSO GIVE THE ANIMAL SHELTERS GIFTS OF NEEDED VET SUPPLIES FOOD BLANKETS TREATS ETC.THANKSGIVING SHOULD NOT BE ONLY ABOUT THE AMERICAN TRADITIONS, BUT A TIME TO REFLECT UPON HOW LUCKY YOU ARE FOR YOUR LIFE FAMILY ETC.
READING THE MANY DIGITAL NEWSPAPERS I SUBSCRIBE TO,AS WELL AS WATCHING THE NEWS IN MY COUNTRY, I SOMETIMES WONDER, WITH THE CRUELTY MANY PEOPLE SHOW TO ONE ANOTHER THRU VIOLENT CRIMES HOME INVASION WAR AND TERRORISM, HOW ON EARTH DID WE HUMANS MAKE IT TO WHERE WE ARE TODAY? GIVEN THE THREATS, OF NUCLEAR WAR VIOLENT CRIMES THE CRUELTY SOME PEOPLE SHOW TO OTHER PEOPLE AND ANIMALS? IT MAKES ME SO SAD THAT SOME PEOPLE ARE WILLING, TO BE CRIMINALS TERRORISTS AND WILLING TO HARM OTHRES BECAUSE THEY WANT THEIR MONEY PHONES TVS ETC.I REALLY WISH THAT EVERYONE COULD REALLY THINK THRU THE CONSEQUENCES OF THEIR ACTIONS BEFORE THEY CHOOSE WHAT TO DO. WHEN I READ ABOUT GENUINE ACTS OF KINDNESS OR SEE PEOPLE SHOWING KINDNESS TO ANOTHER PERSON, LIKE THE PERSON I SAW YESTERDAY WHEN I WAS OUT, TALKING KINDLY AND BUYING A HOT MEAL FOR A POOR HOMELESS PERSON, IT REALLY MADE MY DAY. I AM GOING TO WORK HARDER TO BE KINDER AND MORE UNDERSTANDING OF OTHERS , AS IT TAKES ONLY A MONENT TO ASSIST ANOTHER, TO SPEAK KINDLY TO BE MOER PATIENT AND TOLERANT OF OTHERS , REMEMBERING THAT AS MY MOM TOLD ME WHEN I WAS A LITTLE GIRL, FIRSTLY ARE YOU PERFECT DAUGHTER? NO MOTHER I AM NOT, THEN SHE TOLD ME, WHAT GIVES YOU THE RIGHT THEN , TO CONDEMN OR TO BE CRITICAL OF ANOTHER WHEN YOU ARE FAR FROM PERFECT YOURSELF. I CANNOT EVER REMEMBER MY MOM EVER BEING HARSH OR CRITICAL OF ANOTHER. SHE TAUGHT ME REAL LOVE IS SHOWING COMPASSION TO ANOTHER. NOT JUDGING OTHERS, BUT DOING WHAT YOU CAN TO BE A GOOD DECENT KIND PERSON YOURSELF. SHE SAID IT TAKES A MOMENT TO PERFORM AN ACT OF KINDNESS TOWARDS OTHERS,. SHE SAID TO ME BEFORE SHE DIED OF LIVER CANCER, PROMISE ME YOU WILL REMEMBER WHAT I TAUGHT YOU, ABOUT DOING ONE SIMPLE ACT OF KINDNESS FOR ANOTHER? I SAID YES MOTHER, SHE ASKED ME TO PROMISE HER I WOULD CONTINUE TO CONTINUE HER TRADITION, OF ONE ACT OF RANDOM KINDNESS PER DAY. TO REMEMBER THAT A KIND WORD OR ACTION HAS THE POWER TO COMFORT OR CHEER UP ANOTHER PERSON, WHO MAY BE HAVING A REALLY HARD DAY. I TRY HARD TO REMEMBER MY PROMISE TO MY MOM, BUT SOMETIMES I FORGET. BUT I AM NOW MORE DETERMINED THEN EVER TO TRY TO MAKE MY LITTLE CORNER OF THE WORLD A LITTLE BETTER THEN I FOUND IT. I WISH EVREY PERSON IN THE WORLD REGUARDLESS OF THEIR BACKGROUND, COULD BE HEALTHY HAPPY ADN MOST OF ALL FEEL THAT THEY WERE LOVED SUPPORTED AND CARED FOR. I WISH THAT THERE WAS NO HUNGER HOMELESSNESS WAR CRIME ETC. I CANNOT CHANGE THE WORLD, BUTI CAN WORK HARDER TO MAKE A POSITIVE DIFFERENCE N THIS WORLD WHILE IAM ALIVE. I AM A LUCKY PERSON,. I AM LOVED I CAN SEE HEAR TALK WALK BE INDEPENDANT, HAVE ENOUGHT TO EAT HAVE A LOVING AND HAPPY HOME. I HAVE MORE THEN A LOT OF PEOPLE DO IN THE WORLD, AND I AM A GOING TO WORK HARDER TO KEEP THAT PROMISE I MADE TO MY MOM ALL THOSE YEARS AGO WHEN I WAS JUST 13. I HOPE ONE DAY THAT THIS WORLD WILL BE A KINDER SAFER ND BETTER PLACE FOR ALL PEOPLE AND ALL ANIMALS. WHEN I TOLD MY MOM THAT SHE SAID WELL IT STARTS WITH JUST ONE PERSON, WHO TRIED TO MAKE A POSITIVE DIFFERENCE.