HTML for Mosquitos

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Author: ElderDaniel
VR Publish Date: Oct 07 2005

Click here for a TIFF Cheat Sheet you can print out.

I have had a lot of great comments on my HTML for Whelps article. Many of you have asked for more, and I'm happy to say there is a lot more to share. So, let's take another bite out of HTML.

The first article introduced HTML tags, which are the primary means of adding any markup to a webpage. The other means are special codes in the text for inserting special characters. These are called character entities in geekspeak, but you may know them as extended characters or text symbols that we don't find on a standard keyboard.

These codes are not only useful for adding characters like © and ® to your text, but are mainly for supplying accented letters and international symbols, ala ¿Qué Pasa? They can even make non-Latin language letters available; primarily Greek, as they are used in scientific and mathematical formulae. For example:
A = πr².

Quite possibly the best use of them is for characters we do use often, but thanks to their special use in HTML, like , and &, including them in a post can be tricky and give unexpected results. In these critical cases, it is important to note what the entity codes are for them.

With that, let's talk about what we can do. There are two important differences between entity codes and tags. Like tags, they need a beginning and ending character; however, instead of < and >, we use & and ;. Secondly, case IS important to an entity code, because when using an accented character, Ñ is different than ñ. BUT please note, unlike tags, remarkably, the semi-colon (;) at the end is optional for some web browsers!

So, just demonstrating with a couple entities:
Ñ = Ñ is different than ñ = ñ.
© = © AND © is also legal, but bad form.

For clarity of the reader and to maintain compatibility with all browsers that may deal with this differently, you should always end the code with a semi-colon. I only mention this fact here because it will drive you mad trying to figure out why you might be getting some weird character appearing in your text. For example, you could discover you inadvertantly had "Fishχps" for lunch, when you really had "Fish&chips". (χ is the Greek letter chi and is coded by χ.)

Before listing out the codes, which I've tried to place into useful groups, remember that a) all browsers are not alike, and b) some fonts do not have the symbols you may be wanting. Keep this second point especially in mind here on Vampire Rave, since the font is Verdana by default. While this is a crisp and clean looking font, and it has most of the needed symbols, it still does not have them all. In these cases, the symbols will appear as an empty box, like this: ∉ As a result, I have not listed every possible symbol.

Codes for common characters
SymbolEntity CodeDescription
>greater-than sign
""(double) quotation mark
ˆˆspacing circumflex accent, carat
˜˜tilde accent

Lower / Upper Case Latin-1 Letters
SymbolEntity CodesDescription
à / Àà / ÀA grave
á / Áá / ÁA acute
â / Ââ / ÂA circumflex
ã / Ãã / ÃA tilde
ä / Ää / ÄA dieresis or umlaut
å / Åå / ÅA ring
æ / Ææ / ÆAE ligature
ç / Çç / ÇC cedilla
è / Èè / ÈE grave
é / Éé / ÉE acute
ê / Êê / ÊE circumflex
ë / Ëë / ËE dieresis or umlaut
ì / Ìì / ÌI grave
í / Íí / ÍI acute
î / Îî / ÎI circumflex
ï / Ïï / ÏI dieresis or umlaut
ð / Ðð / ÐETH
ñ / Ññ / ÑN tilde
ò / Òò / ÒO grave
ó / Óó / ÓO acute
ô / Ôô / ÔO circumflex
õ / Õõ / ÕO tilde
ö / Öö / ÖO dieresis or umlaut
ø / Øø / ØO slash
ù / Ùù / ÙU grave
ú / Úú / ÚU acute
û / Ûû / ÛU circumflex
ü / Üü / ÜU dieresis or umlaut
ý / Ýý / ÝY acute
þ / Þþ / ÞTHORN
ß / ßß / ßsmall sharp s, sz ligature

ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) Entities
SymbolEntity CodeDescription
 non-breaking space
¡¡inverted exclamation mark
¢¢cent sign
££pound sterling sign
¤¤general currency sign
¥¥yen sign
¦¦or &brkbar;broken vertical bar
§§section sign
¨¨or &die;spacing dieresis or umlaut
©©copyright sign
ªªfeminine ordinal indicator
««left (double) angle quote (guillemet)
¬¬logical not sign
®®registered trademark sign
¯¯ or &hibar;spacing macron (long) accent,
°°degree sign
±±plus-or-minus sign
²²superscript 2
³³superscript 3
´´spacing acute accent
µµmicro sign
paragraph sign, pilcrow sign
··middle dot, centered dot
¸¸spacing cedilla
¹¹superscript 1
ººmasculine ordinal indicator
»»right (double) angle quote (guillemet)
¼¼fraction 1/4
½½or &half;fraction 1/2
¾¾fraction 3/4
¿¿inverted question mark

Microsoft Windows Latin-1 Extended Control Characters (Not Standard)
SymbolEntity CodeDescription
ƒƒsmall italic f, function of, florin
… or &ldots;low horizontal ellipsis
dagger mark
double dagger mark
per thousand (mille) sign
ŠŠcapital S caron or hacek
left single angle quote mark (guillemet)
ŒŒcapital OE ligature
left single quotation mark,
right single quote mark
left double quotation mark,
right double quote mark
round filled bullet
– or &endash;en dash
— or &emdash;em dash
˜˜small spacing tilde accent
trademark sign
ššsmall s caron or hacek
right single angle quote mark (guillemet)
œœsmall oe ligature
ŸŸcapital Y dieresis or umlaut

Other Common Symbols (Not Standard)
SymbolEntity CodeDescription
euro sign
hollow diamond suit, lozenge
black spade suit
filled club suit, shamrock
filled heart suit, valentine
filled diamond suit

Mathematical Symbols
SymbolEntity CodeDescription
÷÷divide or subtract, depending on culture
fraction slash
±±plus-or-minus (+/-)
minus sign
··a centered dot
circled plus, direct sum
logical and, `wedge'
logical or, vee, vel
>greater than
less than or equal to
greater than or equal to
not equal to
identical to
almost equal to, asymptotic to
tilde operator, varies with, similar to

Set Relations
SymbolEntity CodeDescription
is a subset of
is a superset of
is a subset of or equal to
is a superset of or equal to
is an element of
contains as member

SymbolEntity CodeDescription
left arrow
right arrow
up arrow
down arrow
horizontal arrows
double-lined right arrow
double-lined horizontal arrow ("if and only if" aka "iff")

Unary operators
SymbolEntity CodeDescription
¬¬logical not
for all
partial differential
there exists
nabla, backward difference
n-ary product, product sign
n-ary sumation, sum sign
square root, radical sign

Miscellaneous mathematical symbols
SymbolEntity CodeDescription
¹¹superscript 1
²²superscript 2
³³superscript 3
¼¼a quarter
½½a half
¾¾three quarters

Greek letters
SymbolEntity CodeDescription
α / Αα / ΑAlpha
β / Ββ / ΒBeta
γ / Γγ / ΓGamma
δ / Δδ / ΔDelta
ε / Εε / ΕEpsilon
ζ / Ζζ / ΖZeta
η / Ηη / ΗEta
θ / Θθ / ΘTheta
ι / Ιι / ΙIota
κ / Κκ / ΚKappa
λ / Λλ / ΛLambda
μ / Μμ / ΜMu
ν / Νν / ΝNu
ξ / Ξξ / ΞXi
ο / Οο / ΟOmicron
π / Ππ / ΠPi
ρ / Ρρ / ΡRho
σ / Σσ / ΣSigma
τ / Ττ / ΤTau
υ / Υυ / ΥUpsilon
φ / Φφ / ΦPhi
χ / Χχ / ΧChi
ψ / Ψψ / ΨPsi
ω / Ωω / ΩOmega

Let me wrap up with a reminder... Always copy your posting somewhere before posting on VR! Too many people have lost an incredibly witty, long-winded post to the fickleness of the internet. This is NOT a VR problem, but a security issue imposed by the internet itself. It is just a really good idea to write your profile/message/journal entry offline in Notepad or some other editor that you can save your file, then copy and paste it here.

Enjoy the Rave,
The Elder Lurker Daniel

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