Irish Medieval History
Happy Celtic New Year - In ancient Ireland on the eve of Samhain (October 31st) the old year died and the new one was born. The newborn year matured until Imbolc (February 1) when the ground was ready to be impregnated with seed. The historic Hill of Tara contains a Neolithic (New Stone Age) structure built between 3000 and 2500 BC and known today as the Mound of the Hostages. It is an ancient passage tomb with its inner chamber aligned with the rising sun on the dates of Samhain and Imbolc.
The ancient Irish believed that the gods and the spirits of the dead lived in a multiverse including underground in fairy mounds, across the western sea or in an invisible world that coexists with the world of humans. At Samhain and again at Bealtaine (May 1st) the partition between this world and the otherword became weak allowing the spirits of the otherworld to roam freely among the living.
In Irish literature the people of the mounds are called daoine sídhe (p. dee ana she) who are variously said to be the ancestors, the spirits of nature or goddesses and gods. The aos sí (p. ahos shee, older form aes sídhe p. ays sheeth-uh) is the term used for a supernatural race in Irish mythology comparable to the fairies or elves. Often they are not named directly but rather spoken of as “The Good Neighbours”, “The Fair Folk”, or simply “The Folk”.
The word sídhe (p. she) is probably best understood as meaning fairy and is familiar to you all as in the Banshee (Bean sídhe). She is the harbinger of death in Irish mythology and if you hear her wail someone near is about to die. Confusingly the word sídhe is also the word used to describe the dwelling place of fairies thus these days they are often referred to as sídhe mounds or fairy mounds.
The hill of Knockma (Cnoc Meadha) west of Tuam, County Galway is said in legend to be the residence of Finnbheara, the king of the Connacht fairies. The hill rises out of a large flat plain and has two large prehistoric cairns (stone mounds) on top of it. One is said to be the burial place Finnbheara and the other of Queen Medb.
When Finnbheara rises tonight and if you happen to be in the vicinity you will probably hear this tune played in his honour called appropriately “King of the Fairies”.
In the 1970s the tune was plugged into a nearby electric power station and it came out like this. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vFK7Jc1HEvs
And after the reunion 40 years later! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vd-R1sSgd7o
Tonight with the portals to the otherworld open your ancestors are coming to visit, so be sure and leave them food and pay homage to them. It was through their struggle that we enjoy freedom and a bountiful existence today. Be warned the evil spirits can get through as well and they are looking to carry off innocent mortals to the otherworld. Be sure to adopt the look and dress of an evil spirit so that they will take you to be one of their own and search elsewhere for mortals. Take care and enjoy yourself.
Irish Medieval History
Women and marriage in late medieval Ireland - a comparison between the native society and the Anglo Irish society.
The married women of both these societies coped and dealt with their differing freedoms and restrictions allowed them by their legal systems. These systems conflicted with each other in various ways and for the women themselves, the quality of their lives as married women had as much to do with their socio-economic status within their own societies as whether they adhered to Gaelic or to common law. However there were marked differences in the rights and restrictions accorded to them under the different legal and social systems. For example, Anglo-Irish wives (and their property) were legally subject to their husbands. This does not seem to have been wholly the case in Gaelic Ireland where wives could enter into contracts of their own volition and kept control of their own lands and goods after marriage. With these riches they often acted independently as important and influential patrons of the arts and also, in some cases, actively participated in the military and political life of their community. However they could not themselves become chieftains or hold power in such a formal and official fashion. Gaelic wives were still subject in some ways to the influence of their kin which could be disadvantageous. Similarly after her marriage ended whether through death or separation the Gaelic Irishwoman was once again subject entirely to the will of her own family whereas an Anglo-Irish woman found her rights more fully protected as a single woman or as a widow.
Extract from Anglo-Irish and Gaelic marriage laws and traditions in late medieval Ireland, Journal of Medieval History 32 (2006) 27-42, Gillian Kenny
Irish Medieval History
Irish law is almost wholly the product of a professional class of jurists called brithim or brehons. Originally the Druids and later the filid or poets were the keepers of the law, but by historic times jurisprudence was the professional specialization of the brehons who often were members of hereditary brehonic families and enjoyed a social and legal status just below that of the kings. The brehons survived among the native Irish until the very end of a free Irish society in the early 17th century. They were particularly marked for persecution, along with the poets and historians, by the English authorities. The statutes of Kilkenny (1366) specifically forbade the English from resorting to the brehon's law, but they were still being mentioned in English documents of the early 17th century.
The absence from the function of law-making of the Irish kings may seem startling. But Irish kings were not legislators nor were they normally involved in the adjudication of disputes unless requested to do so by the litigants. A king was not a sovereign; he himself could be sued and a special brehon was assigned to hear cases to which the king was a party. He was subject to the law as any other freeman. The Irish polity, the tuath, was, one distinguished modem scholar put it, "the state in swaddling clothes". It existed only in "embryo". "There was no legislature, no bailiffs or police, no public enforcement of justice . . . there was no trace of State administered justice". Certain mythological kings like Cormac mac Airt were reputed to be Lawgivers and judges, but turn out to be euhemerized Celtic deities. When the kings appear in the enforcement of justice, they do so through the system of suretyship which was utilized to guarantee the enforcement of contracts and the decisions of the brehon's courts. Or they appear as representatives of the assembly of freemen to contract on their behalf with other tuatha or churchmen. Irish law is essentially brehon's law-and the absence of the State in its creation and development is one of the chief reasons for its importance as an object of our scrutiny.
The bulk of the Irish law tracts were committed to writing in the late seventh and early eighth centuries, and though influenced somewhat by the impact of Christianity, they are basically reflective of the social and legal principles, practices and procedures of pagan Irish society. In the early ninth century, the oldest texts were being glossed because the original meaning was no longer certain, or practice had in fact undergone developmental change. By the 10th century elaborate commentaries were being added which indicate that the texts were either so obscure to the new generation as to be inexplicable, or change had become so marked that the commentaries often contradict the text itself. Part of this confusion was due to the very archaic and technical language of the earliest texts and the subsequent change in the Irish language from what we call now Old Irish to Middle Irish. If we recall the marked differences between the English of Chaucer and that of Shakespeare, we will understand the difficulties of the brehon jurists over a comparable period of time.
Extract from “Property Rights in Celtic Irish Law”, Joseph R. Peden, Department of History, Baruch College of the City University of New York, 1977
Image: Judgements Concerning Privileged Classes, in an Irish Law Book f.135v
Irish Medieval History
The First Human Rights Legislation was decreed in Ireland in 697AD, 1167 years before the signing of the first Geneva Convention in 1864 which aimed to protect non combatants during war.
The decree of the law of Adomnán (Cáin Adomnáin, otherwise Lex Innocentium) occurred at the synod of Birr, Co. Offaly and was designed to define a category of non-combatants (innocentes) females, clerics and pre-adolescent boys who would henceforth be protected from violence.
The age of Chivalry is Dead! The Disney image of knights in shining armour, polite to women, rescuing damsels in distress is a myth. Damsels or noble women were likely to be in distress because of the actions knights but as far as the code of chivalry was concerned it only applied only to the killing and treatment of women of the ruling class. In reality the spoils of war included the knightly entertainment of rape, torture and murder of ordinary women (and men too). Such behaviour is often termed nowadays as Medieval which is in grave error. Our medieval ancestors gave us the notion that we had a right not to be mistreated by the ruling élite. Those of you who have seen the film Gladiator will recall the murder of Maximus’s innocent wife and son at the whim of the new emperor. Unspeakable brutality was much in evidence in the so called advanced civilisations of Rome, Greece and elsewhere.
Cáin Adomnáin signifies the beginning of the enormous Christian movement to minimize social violence, a movement which has continued to the present day. 292 years after its decree in 989AD the Catholic Church on the continent started a movement similar to Cáin Adomnáin called the Peace and Truce of God (Latin: Pax Dei, Treuga Dei; German: Gottesfrieden, French: Paix de Dieu.) It set out to protect the poor and the deliberate poor (clerics) who could not protect themselves. Some claim in error that this was the first organized attempt to control civil society in medieval Europe through non-violent means but as we have seen the Irish were 292 years ahead.
Some historians have interpreted the concepts like the Roman Pax Deorum (peace of the gods) and the visit of the Germanic god Nerthus when during her annual visit the sound of war was hushed, quarrels were suspended, arms laid aside as antecedents of Pax Dei but these only describe periods of peace when the gods were not angry in the first case and a festival period in the latter.
The true enlightenment of humanity began in the medieval period. It was at this time when our modern world began.
As we have seen with chivalry the efforts of our medieval ancestors were only partially successful and despite continuous efforts spanning over 1200 years, right down to our present day, innocents continue to be slaughtered. We can never become complacent given the violent nature of our species.
Irish Medieval History
Why do our students flock to Ireland by the ship load for an education? In the 600sAD the prestige of Irish schools brought great number of students to Ireland or to Irish established schools elsewhere. King Oswald (634-42), was educated and baptised among the Irish and is commemorated in Irish records as ardrí Saxan sóerdae “noble high-king of the English.” His son King Aldfrith (685-705), had an Irish mother and Bede stated that he was educated among the Irish. Aldfrith was renowned among the Irish for his scholarship and may have written texts in the Irish language.
Aldhelm of Malmesbury complained of English students flocking to Ireland rather than staying in England for their education. Aldhelm queried rhetorically: “Why, I ask, is Ireland, whither assemble the thronging students by the fleet-load, exalted with a sort of ineffable privilege?”
William of Malmesbury, stated that Aldhelm had had an Irish teacher named Máeldub. This seems likely since Aldhelm had served as abbot of Malmesbury, and Bede (writing c.731) had referred to Malmesbury as Maildubi urbs “Máeldub’s city” (HE v 18).
Aldhelm’s complaints are found in a letter addressed to an Englishman named Ehfridus (Heahfrith) who had returned to England after six years of study in Ireland “bursting with praise for learning.” Aldhelm’s letter to Ehfridus implied that grammar, geometry, physics and Biblical exegesis were available to the English students in Irish monastic schools in the seventh century.
Aldhelm intimated that Ehfridus had spent time at Mayo of the Saxons (Mag nÉo na Saxan), a monastic site in the west of Ireland mentioned by Bede and populated primarily by Englishmen (HE iv 4). Approximately thirty English monks had accompanied the Irish bishop Colmán to found a monastery in 668 at Inishboffin (Inis Bó Finne), an island off the west coast of Ireland. This occurred after the decision at the Council of Whitby in 664 which saw the end to Irishmen holding the bishopric of Lindisfarne in Northumbria (HE iii 25).
Mayo of the Saxons continued to thrive and attract Englishmen for more than a century after its foundation. For example, we know that in 732 an Englishman, Gerald, died as pontifex “bishop” there. In the late eighth century, the English scholar Alcuin (d.804) addressed a letter to the English monks at Mayo of the Saxons and mentioned their growing numbers, proving that Englishmen continued to travel as “study abroad students” to the west of Ireland. The monastery’s presumed location is in the town of Mayo in the county of that name.
Extracts from "Seventh-Century Ireland as a Study Abroad Destination" by Colin Ireland
Image: the new engineering building at the National University of Ireland, Galway, which brings many foreign students flocking there to study!
References: HE - Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum by Bede
Irish Medieval History
Omne trium perfectum (everything that comes in threes is perfect). 5500 years ago before the great Egyptian pyramids were built the inhabitants of Ireland had a liking for groups of three, especially of three closely related persons or things. A plethora of names are used to describe groups of three including Triads, Triquetra Triskele, Trinity etc.
These days the Rule of Three is a writing principle which suggests that things that come in threes are inherently funnier, more satisfying or more effective than other numbers of things. The reader or audience of this form of text is also more likely to consume information if it is written in groups of threes. From slogans ("Go, fight, win!") to films. Think of the many works which are structured in threes like The Three Stooges, Three Little Pigs, Three Billy Goats Gruff, Goldilocks and the Three Bears, etc.
The rule of thirds is a "rule of thumb" or guideline which applies to the process of composing visual images such as designs, films, paintings, and photographs. A process which it is thought creates more tension, energy and interest in the composition than simply centring the subject would.
The Triads of Ireland are a miscellaneous collection of about 214 Old Irish triads (and some numerical variants) on a variety of topics, such as nature, geography, law, custom and behaviour usually dated to the ninth century. Some examples include;
Three candles that illumine every darkness: truth, nature, knowledge.
Three things that constitute a good Harper: a tune to make you cry, a tune to make you laugh, a tune to put you to sleep.
Three things which justice demands: judgement, measure, conscience.
Three sparks that kindle love: a face, demeanour, speech.
Three things that constitute a buffoon: blowing out his cheek, blowing out his satchel, blowing out his belly.
Three hateful things in speech: stiffness, obscurity, a bad delivery.
The tri-spiral design on orthostat C10 in the north recess at the back of the chamber at New Grange is probably the most famous Irish Megalithic symbol carved 5500 years ago. The tri-spiral is often referred to as a Celtic design however, it was carved about 2500 years before Celtic culture reached Ireland.
A Triquetra is a geometrical figure having three points, especially one formed of three intersecting ellipses: The Triquetra was often used in ancient art to symbolize a triune deity.
Ériu the Goddess after whom Ireland is named is a part of triumvirate of tutelary (guardian or protector) Goddesses along with her sisters, Banba and Fódla.
Colours of the Irish tricolour flag in a roundel, a modern intrepretation of the Celtic triskele.
The Shamrock is said to represent the Blessed Trinity in the Irish Christian tradition and a symbol or Ireland second only to the Harp.
A Triskele is a motif consisting of three interlocked spirals, or three bent human legs, like on the flag of the Isle of Man and Sicily.
This was an interesting read :)
Very. Very. Very. Nicely written and I enjoyed it immensely. I felt a threefold tinge of guilt though when realizing I live in Ireland and haven't been to New Grange yet.
Some of these things I already knew but the novels I am writing deal with Ireland sort of and some of the words used I just knew. My paternal grandmothers maiden name was McLaughlin but I don't know any of the relatives. Just that her father came to the US from Ireland. I married someone who loved Ireland. He would have been born there but his parents came back to the US (one was an American and the other born in the Republic of Ireland) just before he was born but there are many relatives there. Many of them migrated to No. Ireland and live in and around Belfast.
I love the lore and have been studying it for a long time and one particular group that is represented in my books. I must have take in some of these things and didn't remember consciously but I found a phrase in this writing that will fit perfectly in one of them. Great stuff. I have written on the Isle of Man and would love to visit.
Irish Medieval History
In 609AD Pope Boniface IV designated November 1 All Saints’ Day, or as Middle English has it, Alholowmesse. The night before, October 31 was thus All-Hallows Eve, or Halloween. In 1000AD, the church made November 2 All Souls’ Day, a day to honour the dead. There are references to both days earlier, but these seem to be the dates of official sanction.
Most authorities seem to agree that there is some relationship, at least in terms of an inspiration, for All Souls Day, between the Celtic feast of Samain (Modern Irish Samhain).
The origin of All Saints' Day cannot be traced with certainty and it has been observed on various days in different places throughout the ages. However, there are some who maintain the belief that it has origins in the pagan observation around the 13 May, the Feast of the Lemures, in which the malevolent and restless spirits of the dead were propitiated. Liturgiologists base the idea that this Lemuria festival was the origin of that of All Saints on their near dates and on the similar theme of "all the dead"
During Lemuria it was the custom to appease or expel the evil spirits by walking barefoot and throwing black beans over the shoulder at night. It was the head of the household who was responsible for getting up at midnight and walking around the house with bare feet throwing out black beans and repeating the incantation, "I send these; with these beans I redeem me and mine (haec ego mitto; his redimo meque meosque fabis.)." nine times. The household would then clash bronze pots while repeating, "Ghosts of my fathers and ancestors, be gone!" nine times. Because of this annual exorcism of the noxious spirits of the dead, the whole month of May was rendered unlucky for marriages, whence the proverb Mense Maio malae nubent ("They wed ill who wed in May").
In contrast at Samhain the ancestors of the family were welcomed and celebrated. At All Saints and Souls Days the dead were celebrated too. Evil spirits were not banished because it was though impossible so people disguised themselves as evil spirits so as not to be recognised as a mortal and be carried off by the evil ones to the underworld. It would appear that the sentiment expressed on these holy days has more in common Samhain than the Roman festival.
According to Irish mythology, Samhain (like Bealtaine in May) was a time when the 'door' to the Otherworld opened enough for fairies and the dead to communicate with us; but while Bealtaine was a summer festival for the living, Samhain "was essentially a festival for the dead". The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn says that the sídhe (fairy mounds or portals to the fairy world) "were always open at Samhain". Like Bealtaine, Lughnasadh and Imbolc, Samhain involved great feasting.
The days marking half way point between the solstices and equinoxes are known as "cross quarter days" and these days are when the most important festivals of the ancient Irish occur. Known as Samhain, Imbolc, Bealtaine and Lughnasadh, each festival marks the start of a season, winter, spring, summer and autumn. Knowledge of the seasons was important for survival in northern climes as late planting could be disastrous in a short growing season. Thus equinoxes were of lesser importance. (Samhain, Bealtaine and Lughnasadh are still the names in Irish of November, May and August, respectively.)
Julian calendar was reformed by Pope Gregory in 1582* (hence the Gregorian calender which we use today) and ten days were annulled so that October 5, 1582 became October 15. However, the old cross-quarter days kept their old dates, so Hallows, which was celebrated on the night of October 31, is still celebrated on that date, despite the fact that the actual revised date would be on November 11. The time or season of Hallows began on the actual cross-quarter or half-quarter day between Autumn Equinox and Winter Solstice, which was November 8, while the night of November 10 to 11 was considered the beginning of Hallows proper, the night when the hallows, or spirits of the dead, returned to this world. This period when the veil is open between this world and the next continues until November 16, referred to as Gate Closing and which coincides with what is also known as Hecate Night, and also when the Leonid meteor shower begins.
*Note: the Gregorian calender did not come into effect in Ireland until 1st January 1752 because protestant England resisted using a Catholic calendar!
Irish Medieval History
Halloween, its Irish roots - As millions of children and adults prepare to participate in the fun of Halloween on the night of October 31st, few will be aware of its ancient Celtic roots in the Samain or in modern Irish Samhain (p. S-owin) festival. In Celtic Ireland about 2,000 years ago, Samhain was the division of the year between the lighter half (summer) and the darker half (winter). At Samhain the division between this world and the otherworld (world of the dead) was at its thinnest, allowing spirits to pass through. Samhain occurs on Nov 1st and was one of the great fire festivals, it marked the start of the Celtic new year.
On the eve of Samhain families invited the spirits of their ancestors home and honoured them whilst harmful spirits were warded off. Evil spirits would search the world of the living looking for souls to carry back with them to the otherworld. The best defence against the evil spirits was to pretend to be one and thus the evil ones would pass one over and continue searching for a victim (i.e. someone not in costume! You have been warned). So began the modern Halloween tradition of dressing in scary costumes. A tradition dating back millennia and brought by Irish emigrants firstly to Scotland and later to North America and now the four corners of the Earth.
Bonfires and food played a large part in the festivities. The bones of slaughtered livestock were cast into a communal fire, household fires were extinguished and started again from the bonfire. (This is where the term "Bone fire" originates) The ritual symbolises the death of the old year and the birth of the new.
Food was prepared for the living and the dead. As the dead were in no position it eat it, it was ritually shared with the less well off.
Christianity incorporated the honouring of the dead into the Christian calendar with All Saints (All Hallows) on November 1st, followed by All Souls on November 2nd. The wearing of costumes and masks to ward off harmful spirits survived as Halloween customs. The Irish emigrated to America in great numbers during the 19th century especially around the time of famine during the 1840's. The Irish carried their Halloween traditions to America, where today it is one of the major holidays of the year.
Through time other traditions have blended into Halloween, for example the American harvest time tradition of carving pumpkins has travelled back across the atlantic. Originally the Irish made Jack-o'-lanterns out of turnips or beet but nowadays pumpkins are much easier to carve.
Two hills in the Boyne Valley were associated with Samhain in Celtic Ireland, Tlachtga and Tara. Tlachtga was the location of the Great Fire Festival which begun on the eve of Samhain (Halloween). Tara was also associated with Samhain, however it was secondary to Tlachtga in this respect.
We call it a Celtic festival because Samhain is a Celtic word but the celebration of Samhain is pre-Celtic. The entrance passage to the Mound of the Hostages on the Hill of Tara is aligned with the rising sun around Samhain. The Mound is 4,500 to 5,000 years old, suggesting that Samhain was celebrated long before Celtic culture arrived in Ireland about 2,500 years ago.
A traditional Irish turnip Jack-o'-lantern dating from the early 20th century is on display in the Museum of Country Life, in Castlebar, Co. Mayo. If you are not easily scared you can have a look at a picture of it here!
How Do I Know If I’ve Found My Twin Flame?
Your unconditional love for your partner is like no other. Your partner is likely to have a certain habit, quality, or “baggage” that would be a deal-breaker for you in any other relationship. However, you overlook it or willingly work through it with this partner– no matter what it takes.
In efforts to harmonize, justify karma, and balance each other, you “push each other’s buttons” and test each other’s limits like no one else has or ever will. Nevertheless, the extreme highs in the relationship consistently get higher.
Friends, family members, and others in your circle can’t relate to the twin flame dramas and always try to get you to move on to someone or something else that seems more logical or better for you “on paper.”
Even if you are extremely tired of 3 dimensional existence here on earth, you heal, evolve, mature, and continue to live– just to stay with your twin flame partner.
I have also found that sometimes it is the opposite they compliment your short comings are totally devoted and rarely fight (as me and my mate we never argue fight or really have BIG disagreements and if we don't see eye to eye we act like adults and talk about the issue not yell and scream or make the other feel inadequate for their point of veiw.) if we have unresolved issues it's cuz theyaren't brought up and are our own darn faults lol
“If you really like someone, aim to spend lots of one-on-one time together with no distractions. Talk about your lives, and unearth each other’s interests. Share your hopes and dreams. Bypass small talk, and dive into what’s really important to you. Speak soulfully and listen attentively. This way you can create an amazing connection in a matter of hours that would take weeks to accomplish with traditional dating. This is about getting to the core and the essence when it comes to the person you relate with.”
- Enoch Mind Reality (Conscious Relationship - Being Open and Honest)
“You will need a place set aside for your rituals where you can feel safe, at peace with your emotions, secure from interruption and distraction. You must be able to concentrate completely on one purpose during the time of the ritual. If the person in the next apartment is blasting the stereo, and this gets on your nerves, it is a poor ritual place. You must conduct your rituals at a time when this distraction does not exist, or find another place.
As far as possible, everything in the ritual place that is not in harmony with the ritual purpose, whatever it may be at that time, should be minimized or excluded. Everything that supports the ritual purpose should be prominently present, with the proviso that clutter is always a distraction.”
- Hermetic Magic
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How desperate Louis in Chicago, unexpectedly deserted by the wife he loved, was able to locate her quickly in the small town to which she had fled, living under an assumed name, with his psychic powered astral body:
Louis, a conscientious person, was deeply in love with his wife Esther, and drove her to hysteria with his unreasonable jealousy. Every man she passed by or glanced at, threw him into fury. Esther told him that she might as well walk down the street wearing blinders like a horse. They crossed words repeatedly over that issue, until Esther even had to watch how she talked to the janitor or the butcher.
Matters reached the point where Esther could bear it no longer. She loved Louis dearly; he was the soul of kindness, refused her nothing, worshiped the ground she walked on, begged her to live like a lady of leisure and let him do everything for her, even though his earnings were not that startling. To desert him was the last thing she could think of, but how could she continue living with him as they were? She feared, besides, that one day, in a fit of jealousy, he might grow violent and dangerous!
One night they engaged in one of their most savage quarrels. And, it had resulted from something so insignificant as Esther opening the window with a smile. A young man had looked up from the sidewalk and smiled back. Louis happened to be near enough to witness the innocent exchange.
Close to a fit, Esther dropped on the bed and wept for hours. She was a total wreck next morning. Her head felt as big as the moon, and was ready to split. Louis kissed her hands and feet and implored with her to forgive him. But Esther realized that the next terrible quarrel was just around the corner, and she could not go through another such ordeal. She had some money put away. She was tempted to flee to another Chicago neighborhood, but she feared that Louis would seek her out relentlessly and might, even if only by accident, run into her sometime if she worked downtown, as he did. People who had a strong bond between them seemed to be always being drawn together somehow when they remained in the same general area.
Her only solution, Esther concluded, was to flee from Chicago altogether. She had just enough money for that, too. She would go just far enough away from it to work and live without Louis and, eventually, he could seek an uncontested divorce on the grounds of desertion. That very afternoon she left Louis a short note advising him to waste no time trying to find her because she was going away to where he would least expect her to go. She loved him still, she admitted, but to continue as they were, was impossible. She wished him all the good in the world and urged him to forget her, get himself an easy divorce and find the woman who suited him.
The truth at last dawned on Louis as it never had before. But, how could he find Esther now and get her back? His friends did not know how, either. “She could go to so many places right around Chicago!” one of them said with a sigh. “It would take a psychic to find out where.”
Psychic! The word seized hold of Louis’ mind. He had read considerably about that in some of my writings—particularly about astral body projection.
Louis investigated astral body projection and determined to practice and try it. He lay motionless on his back at bedtime and shut his eyes. He visualized himself looking and acting exactly as he should have when Esther was with him—that is, as the trusting, level-headed, non-spying husband which she had undoubtedly expected him to be; as the husband who wasted no time disputing over mere coincidences. After all, he had never even heard the slightest rumor against her morality. His jealousy of her was based upon his own imaginings of what she could do in her leisure time if she wanted to. Louis visualized his astral body emerging from his physical body in an exact reproduction of himself looking and acting just as he would look and act with Esther in the future in order to make her happy and keep her. He drove that majestic vision of himself forcibly out of him with Multiplied Nerve Gap power (feel divinely blissful). In other words, have absolute faith in God or in the supernatural.
Louis practiced the whole projection repeatedly for a week. Finally, he felt his astral body oozing out of him from head to foot. The skin on the front of his body heated up from the energy generated by the physico-astral separation. Then he visualized his astral body appearing instantly that night by the corner of whatever street, and then in whatever house Esther lived now, and then before Esther herself and begged her to come back to him.
He practiced the whole projection ten times. Then he commanded his astral body to project itself to Esther three hours after he fell asleep. To insure his astral body understanding him without a doubt, Louis repeated his command to it six times.
Then, he rested his thoughts about his astral body and sank into sleep.
Much later that night, Louis awoke with a start. He had a vague feeling that he had been dreaming and seeing different things. In particular, though, he vividly recalled staring at a street sign with the words “Rose Street,” and then at a house with a three digit number which was difficult to decipher in the dark. But, it had started with a six. Louis also dimly recollected entering a railroad station with a name beginning with La.
Shaking and dripping with perspiration, Louis sprang to his feet and jotted it all down. At once he searched through a map of the Chicago area. Many towns, suburbs or subdivisions had names beginning with La. During the next few weeks Louis drove to one of them after another, but either he found no Rose Street or no other quick evidence of Esther in any of them.
Only one such town remained, about 90 miles away in Indiana. Louis drove there promptly. He found there a street by that name! It extended only a few blocks, and there were several old residences on the 600 block. Louis parked his own car several blocks away and rented another to prevent Esther from recognizing his as he parked on the next block and watched. Near sunset he spied Esther walking up on that street! She entered one of the homes and closed the door! Louis nearly collapsed. Late that night he hurried by on foot and read the number over the entrance. He saw a six, but the shadow of a tree covered the rest. He drew nearer and read 611. Louis could hardly believe his eyes. A family name appeared on the name plate on the door, but not Esther’s name.
Louis checked in at a hotel and wrote Esther a letter. He informed her that he was in town and staying at that hotel, and that by chance he had seen her and followed her. He assured her that he was a changed man and that, if she gave him another chance, he would now be to her the husband she deserved. Would she please come back to him? On the other hand, he would not frighten nor plague her if she no longer wanted him. Therefore, she should not flee town from him again. Next day, at noon, he was driving back to Chicago. His heart would be broken beyond repair if he had to leave without her. If she did not contact him by then at the hotel, he would realize that he had lost forever the greatest blessing he ever had. Once more, then, and for the last time, he desperately begged her to return to him.
Louis waited hopefully until 11:50 next morning. But there was no sign of Esther. He had lost her forever. He drew on his hat and coat and plodded to the door as if made of soft clay. Just then his room telephone buzzed. The clerk, however, did not answer him when he responded. Moments later, there was a hard rapping on his door. He threw it open. Drenched with tears and carrying her suitcase, was Esther.
Louis and Esther went on a second, but shorter honeymoon, before returning to Chicago. During it Louis learned that Esther had actually “seen” him appear before her bed that projecting night and beseech her to come back to him. He had looked so terrifyingly distressed, too, that she had felt crushingly ill for deserting him. When she had put on the light, though, she had found no evidence that anybody else had been in the room. She inquired at the railroad and bus stations next day and had been assured that nobody fitting his description had been seen using them. Yet, Esther had remained positive that she had both seen and heard him that night. There is no doubt, as you know now, that she really had.
Louis and Esther went back to Chicago. They had one child a year later and moved to San Francisco soon after that, a perfectly contented married couple. With his psychic powered astral body Louis had located the wife he loved, after she had fled from him, and had brought her back to him by making hex do his bidding. He found her only through his astral body’s intelligence in knowing where to locate her.”
- The Secrets of Personal Psychic Power (Frank Rudolph Young)
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Two quotes - "Irish law is the oldest, most original, and most extensive of medieval European legal systems. It is a unique legal inheritance, an independent indigenous system of advanced jurisprudence that was fully evolved by the eighth century. It is also far less well known than it deserves. In 1978 D. A. Binchy, a member of the Irish Bar and Senior Professor at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, published his monumental corpus of ancient Irish law, Corpus Iuris Hibernici (6 vols, Dublin: Institute for Advanced Studies 1978). This is a work of 2343 pages (about 1,483,000 words) containing an edition of all the Irish law texts written on vellum manuscripts (seventh to twelfth centuries) with their accompanying glosses and commentaries in Old, Middle and Early Modern Irish. This is a fundamental resource for the study of Irish history and culture of the early medieval period when Ireland made a unique contribution to European civilization, scholarship and law. Its publication has led to a renaissance in early Irish legal studies (in which Irish, British, continental European and American scholars are involved)." - Prof. Donnchadh Ó Corráin, Director of CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts. Editor of Peritia. Journal of the Medieval Academy of Ireland. University College Cork, Ireland
"Early medieval Ireland evolved a system of law (often called ’brehon’ law, from the Old Irish word brithemain ’judges’) which is remarkable in several respects. No other early medieval society has left such a substantial amount of written law, and none has preserved its laws entirely in the vernacular. Early Irish law is unique also amongst medieval legal codes in the range and nature of the subjects that are covered by it. It has also, until relatively recently, suffered unique neglect. Thanks, however, to the researches of scholars in the last half-century or so, the full richness of the Irish legal material from the period c. 600 to c. 800 can now be fully explored, using the tools of philology, history, archaeology and anthropology." - introductory text to a course on early Irish law from the National University of Ireland, Galway. Prof. Dáibhí Ó Cróinín http://www.nuigalway.ie/history/ocroinin/hi327.html
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